Definition of "urinary calculi."
Calculi are stones that form in the urinary tract.
Various types of stones include calcium oxide, magnesium-ammonium, uric acid, cystine, and mixed.
Factors that increase risk of urinary calculi.
Age (frequently occurs in the third, fourth, and fifth decades).
Sex (incidence in men is three times higher than in women.)
Race (common among whites and Eurasians; rare among Indians and blacks.)
Failure to empty bladder completely.
Excess calcium in blood or urine.
Signs and symptoms of urinary calculi that may vary according to where the stones lodge.
Fever and chills.
Nausea and vomiting.
Blood in urine.
Pain after voiding.
Colic-type pain that begins in the side and radiates down the thigh.
Measures to prevent or control urinary calculi.
Follow dietary restrictions as instructed.
To prevent calcium stones, reduce intake of dairy products, carbonated soft drinks, cheese, and green leafy vegetables.
To prevent oxalate stones, reduce intake of asparagus, beets, plums, raspberries, rhubarb, celery, chocolate, tea, spinach, almonds, cashews, cranberries, grape juice, and Worcestershire sauce.
To prevent uric acid stones, reduce intake of foods high in purine such as organ meats, lean meats, and whole grains.
Increase fluids to at least 2-3 quarts per day if not contraindicated.
Increase activity to decrease urinary stasis.
Use active or passive range-of-motion exercises.
Change positions frequently.
Strain all urine to secure a stone if it passes.
Take pain medication as ordered.
Urine cultures should be taken periodically as a follow-up to detect any recurrent infections.
Possible complications of urinary calculi.