Definition of "peritoneal dialysis."
It is a process that mimics the function of the kidney.
There are several goals of dialysis.
Removal of toxic substances and metabolic wastes.
Regulation of fluid balance through removal of excessive body fluid.
Maintenance of serum electrolyte balance.
Correction of acid-base balance concentration.
Basic procedure of peritoneal dialysis.
Peritoneal dialysis is done by inserting a catheter through the abdominal wall.
The dialysis solution is allowed to flow into the abdomen between the abdominal wall and the visceral wall, which covers the abdominal organs.
The solution os allowed to stay in the abdomen for a set amount of time.
The peritoneum acts as a membrane, allowing diffusion and osmosis to occur, removing toxic wastes and excess fluid from the body.
"Diffusion" is the movement of a solution of higher concentration to a solution of lower concentration.
"Osmosis" is the passage of fluid through a membrane from a solution of lower concentration to a solution of higher concentration.
The fluid is then drained from the abdomen.
Three types of peritoneal dialysis.
Process is usually performed at night, three to seven times a week for about eight hours each time.
Abdomen is empty between dialysis.
Type: Continuous ambulatory
Solution is instilled into abdomen four to five times daily.
Solution is left in place for four to eight hours.
Type: Continuous cycle
Three to four exchanges are done each night.
Peritoneal fluid is left in abdomen during the day.
Measures to follow between dialysis treatments.
Follow diet as instructed by physician (low in protein, sodium and potassium). (Provide "Protein in Diet," "Restrict Sodium," and "Potassium in Diet" handouts.)
Restrict fluids as instructed.
Get adequate rest and exercise.
Take temperature for early detection of infection.
Weigh daily at the same time each day.
How to care for exit site of dialysis catheter.
Assess for signs and symptoms of infection.
Apply antiseptic and dry sterile dressing as instructed.