1.      Types of pain.


A.      Acute pain is intense, lasts less than six months, and warns of actual or potential tissue damage.

B.      Chronic pain usually lasts longer than six months and does not necessarily serve a purpose.


2.      Signs and symptoms of pain.


A.      Clenched fists.

B.      Restlessness.

C.      Sweating.

D.      Facial paleness or flushing.

E.      Increase in blood pressure and pulse.

F.       Altered mood or behavior.

G.      Crying.


3.      How to describe pain.


A.      Pain can be described according to location, duration, intensity, and quality.

B.      It can be identified on a scale of 1-10:  2:discomforting, 4:distressing, 6:severe, 8:horrible,  10:excruciating

C.      Factors that increase pain can be identified. They are:

D.      Factors that alleviate pain can be identified. They are:


4.      Various factors that may help to alleviate pain without, or in addition, to analgesics.


A.      Frequent position changes.

B.      Good body alignment and correct body mechanics.

C.      Soft music and restful environment.

D.      Relaxation techniques, e.g., meditation, yoga, biofeedback. (Provide "Relaxation Techniques" handout.)

E.      Back rubs.

F.       Heat or cold, as ordered.

G.      Pillows to support painful area.

H.      TENS (trans electrical nerve stimulation).

I.         Diversional activities.

J.       Regular rest periods.

K.       Pain clinics.


5.      Knowledge of pain medication.


A.      Pain medication should be given on a regular schedule for chronic pain and PRN for acute pain.

B.      Medication should be give at the onset of pain, before it becomes intense.

C.      Pain medication can be given before an activity that may induce pain to minimize pain.

D.      Care giver should observe client closely for oversedation or inadequate pain relief.

E.      Care giver should observe client closely for body language signs of pain, and offer pain medication.