Definition of "osteoporosis."
It is a metabolic bone disorder in which there is an imbalance between bone formation and bone reabsorption.
Osteoporosis results in decreased bone mass and bone density.
Factors that increase the risk of osteoporosis.
Decreased estrogen levels in post-menopausal women.
Immobilization or lack of regular exercise.
Alcohol and nicotine abuse (decreases calcium absorption and retention).
Inadequate dietary intake.
High intake of caffeine.
Signs and symptoms of osteoporosis.
Curvature of the spine.
Loss of height.
Decreased density of bone.
Measures to prevent or manage osteoporosis.
Exercise is essential to develop high-density bones.
Avoid types of exercise that may increase fractures. (Walking and swimming are recommended.)
Increase exercise gradually.
Eat a well-balanced diet high in calcium, protein, and vitamin D. (Provide "Daily Food Guide" handout.)
Foods high in calcium include milk, yogurt, cheese, salmon, sardines, and dark green vegetables.
Sources of vitamin D include fortified milk, liver, butter, eggs, sunlight.
Sources of protein include eggs, milk, meat, etc. (Provide "Protein in Diet" handout.)
Take calcium and vitamin D supplements as ordered.
Follow safety precautions to prevent falls (good lighting, handrails, safe floor surfaces, etc.). (Refer to Safety/Potential for Injury to the Elderly Teaching Guide.)
Avoid caffeine and alcohol.
Use a firm, supportive mattress.
Follow good body mechanics (Provide "Body Mechanics" handout.)
Possible complications of osteoporosis.
Ileus (intestinal obstruction).