1.      Action


A.      Assists in regulating carbohydrate levels.

B.      Assists in controlling blood glucose and ketones.


2.      Adverse Reactions


A.      Hypoglycemia (headache, sweating, hunger, nervousness, weakness).

B.      Hyperglycemia (flushed, dry skin, nausea, fatigue, headache, dizziness).

C.      Visual changes.

D.      Skin rashes.

E.      Itchiness, swelling, redness, stinging at the site of injection.

F.       Lipoatrophy (wasting of fat tissue).

G.      Lipohypertrophy (enlargement of fat tissue).

H.      Allergic reaction.

i.         Local (hard, indurated lump over injection site).

ii.        Systemic (may range from local areas of itching to general anphylactis).


3.      Factors Affecting Dosage


A.      Stress.

B.      Exercise.

C.      Illness.

D.      Oral intake.


4.      Injection Site


A.      Abdomen (avoid area 1 and 1/2 inches around navel).

B.      Upper outer deltoid.

C.      Upper thigh.

D.      Buttocks.


5.      General Education


A.      Rotation of sites prevents wasting or enlargement of fat tissue.

B.      Rotation of sites at the same anatomical position may decrease variation in blood sugar readings.(Absorption rate in the arms is faster than absorption rate in the legs.)

C.      Store insulin in a cool place. (If insulin is stored in the refrigerator, allow it to warm 30 minutes to room temperature before mixing or administering.)

D.      Take insulin exactly as prescribed, and never adjust dose without orders from physician.

E.      If different types of insulin need to be mixed, use mixture promptly.

F.       Don not interchange beef, pork, or human insulins.

G.      Never use insulin that has changed color or consistency.

H.      Cigarette smoking decreases the amount of insulin absorbed when given subcutaneously.

I.         Discuss exercise changes with physician because insulin may need to be adjusted.

J.       Never omit meals.

K.       Wear a medical identification bracelet.

L.       Monitor blood or urine glucose levels and record.

M.     Read labels of over-the-counter medications carefully for alcohol and sugar content.

N.      Dispose of syringes in a impermeable container.