Definition of "fluid volume deficit."
It is a reduction of body fluids.
It can be caused by various factors.
Fluid loss such as profuse sweating, vomiting, diarrhea, drainage from tubes, etc.
Insufficient fluid intake.
Increased metabolic rate (fever).
Signs and symptoms of fluid volume deficit.
Poor skin turgor.
Dry skin and dry mouth.
Low blood pressure.
Increased body temperature.
Change in mental status.
Measures to replace fluid loss or prevent further fluid loss.
Determine cause of deficit to prevent recurrence. The cause is:
Replace fluid as prescribed.
Oral fluids of at least 2 quarts per day, if no restrictions.
Measure intake and output to evaluate fluid balance.
Take medications as prescribed.
Increase sodium intake if permitted. (Provide "Restrict Sodium" handout.)
Avoid alcohol, sugar, and caffeine, which acts as diuretics.
Increase protein and potassium. (Provide "Protein in Diet" and "Hypokalemia" handouts.)
Possible complications of fluid volume deficit.
Electrolyte imbalance (Provide "Electrolyte Imbalance" handout.)
Dehydration as indicated by:
Increased pulse, respiration, and blood pressure.
Dry skin and tongue.
Decreased skin turgor.