Chronic Renal Failure

  1. Anatomy and physiology of the renal system.



  1. Definition of "chronic renal failure."


  1. It is the irreversible deterioration of renal function.

  2. Symptoms may occur very rapidly, or very slowly over years.

  3. Uremia, an excess of urea and other nitrogenous wastes, occurs.


  1. Factors that may increase risk of chronic renal failure.



  1. Signs and symptoms of each stage of chronic renal failure.


  1. Fatigue.

  2. Weakness.

  3. Voiding frequently at night.

  4. Nausea and vomiting.

  5. Irritability.

  6. Confusion.

    1. End stage renal failure (symptoms may vary).

      1. Paleness or yellowness of skin.

      2. Itchiness caused by uremic frost, a whit-powder substance on the skin.

      3. Edema around eye and in extremities.

      4. Increased blood pressure.

      5. Nausea and vomiting.

      6. Increased urine production progressing to little or no urine production.

      7. Decreased level of consciousness.

      8. Dizziness.


  1. Measures to manage chronic renal failure.



  1. Possible complications of chronic renal failure.