Definition of "cancer."
It is the uncontrolled growth of cells that can spread to other areas of the body and cause destruction of normal tissue.
Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the United States.
Factors that may increase risk of cancer.
Environmental factors such as radiation, chemical exposure, sun exposure, asbestos, etc.
Diet (low fiber, high fat, additives, and preservatives).
Alcohol and tobacco.
Seven warning signs of cancer.
Unusual bleeding or discharge.
Thickening or lump in breast or elsewhere.
Changing wart or mole.
Chronic hoarseness or cough.
Indigestion or difficulty swallowing.
Change in bladder or bowel habits.
Sore that doesn't heal.
Measures for prevention and detection of cancer.
Avoid alcohol (can cause oral and liver cancer).
Avoid smoking (can cause mouth, throat, and lung cancer).
Avoid high-fat diets (can cause breast, colorectal, and prostate cancer).
Avoid prolonged exposure to the sun (can cause skin cancer).
Avoid early sex and multiple partners (can cause cervical cancer).
Avoid airborne carcinogens such as asbestos, uranium, etc. (can cause lung cancer).
Avoid obesity (linked to cancers of uterus, gall bladder, breast, and colon). (Provide "Weight Reduction" handout.)
Early detection guidelines as recommended by the American Cancer Society for Asymptomatic Persons:
Self breast exams every month; exam by doctor every three years and every year after age 40.
Baseline breast exam between the ages of 35 and 39, every 1-2 years between the ages of 40-49, and yearly after age 50.
Pelvic exam every three years between the ages of 20-40, and every year after age 40.
Following two initial negative results one year apart, Pap test every three years.
Digital rectal exam every year after age 40.
Guaiac (hidden blood) slide test every year after age 50.
Proctological exam every 3-5 years after age 50 after two initial negative tests.
See physician immediately if you have any of the 7 warning signal of cancer.
Factors that affect prognosis of cancer.
Delay in prognosis (crucial factor).
Type of cancer.
General condition of client.
Possible treatments for cancer.
Radiation. (Refer to Radiation Teaching Guide.)
Chemotherapy. (Refer to Chemotherapy Teaching Guide.)